Explain the Global Interpreter Lock (GIL) in Python.
- The Global Interpreter Lock is a mechanism in CPython (the default and most widely used Python interpreter) that allows only one thread to execute Python bytecode at a time. This can impact the performance of multi-threaded Python programs. Interviewers might ask about the GIL to gauge your understanding of Python’s threading model and its implications for concurrent programming.
What is PEP 8?
- PEP 8 is the Python Enhancement Proposal that outlines the style guide for writing Python code. It covers topics such as indentation, naming conventions, and code layout, promoting consistent and readable code.
What is the difference between a list and a tuple in Python?
- Lists and tuples are both used to store collections of items, but the key difference is that lists are mutable (can be modified after creation), while tuples are immutable (cannot be modified after creation).
Explain the concept of duck typing.
- Duck typing is a programming concept where the type or class of an object is determined by its behavior (methods and properties) rather than its explicit type. It allows for more flexibility and code reusability.
Given a list containing n distinct numbers taken from the range 0 to n, find the missing number.
- def find_missing_number(nums):
n = len(nums) + 1
expected_sum = n * (n + 1) // 2
actual_sum = sum(nums)
return expected_sum – actual_sum
Write a function to determine if two strings are anagrams of each other.
- def are_anagrams(str1, str2):
return sorted(str1) == sorted(str2)
What is the purpose of the ” __init__ ” method in Python classes?
- The ” __init__ ” method is a special method in Python classes that is automatically called when an object is created. It is used to initialize the object’s attributes. Interviewers may ask this question to test your understanding of object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts in Python.
Explain the concept of list comprehension in Python.
- List comprehensions provide a concise way to create lists in Python. They consist of an expression followed by at least one ‘ for ‘ clause and zero or more ‘ if ‘ clauses. This question assesses your knowledge of Python’s syntax and your ability to write compact and readable code.
What is the difference between Python 2 and Python 3?
- Python 2 and Python 3 are two major versions of the Python programming language. Python 3 was introduced to fix some design flaws and improve the language. Differences include print statement syntax, integer division, Unicode support, and various library changes. Interviewers might ask about the key distinctions to assess your understanding of Python’s evolution.
What is the difference between shallow copy and deep copy?
- A shallow copy creates a new object, but does not make copies of nested objects; rather, it references the original nested objects. A deep copy, on the other hand, creates a new object and recursively copies all nested objects. This question assesses your understanding of Python’s copying mechanisms.
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